# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
20 ZZZ-Mate : Pulse Driven White Noise Generator
Haruya Kamitani
Sanjana Chunduri
Vakaris Ragauskas
Jeff Chang design_document1.pdf
Team Members: Sanjana Chunduri (sc65) / Vakaris Ragauskas (vragau2) / Haruya Kamitani (hkamit2)


According to the CDC, about 70 million Americans suffer from sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep causes various issues in our daily lives such as tiredness, lack of concentration, and in extreme cases, heart failure, diabetes, and various serious conditions.
Some of us rely on external sound sources for falling asleep. Currently, there are various white noise machines out in the market. However, most of these devices output a single, continuous signal. According to one article (, “the continuous background noise also known as white noise which comes from machines and other appliances, can harm your brain, it does so by overstimulating your auditory cortex”. According to one Healthline article (, a 2014 study concluded that “regular exposure to these sound pressure levels may be damaging to infant hearing and auditory development.”


White noise is typically beneficial during the earlier sleep stages, when people are more likely to be awoken by distracting noises or thoughts. However, rather than continuously playing background noise through the night and overstimulating the auditory cortex, our design aims to combat typical sleep deprivation issues by supporting users through all stages of their sleep cycle: Wake, light sleep, deep sleep, REM, and repeat. By taking pulse rate measurements as an indicator of the user’s current sleep stage, our sound generation device will adjust the volume of the white noise. A wristband with a photo sensor and green LEDs will be used to detect the user’s heart rate and will wirelessly relay the information to the white noise generator to adjust the volume as necessary.

#Solution Components

-Subsystem 1(Noise Source):

Power Supply Section: Noise source unit will be powered by 9-15VDC voltage. AC/DC adapter cable will be used. This power supply will provide a necessary power for MPU and if necessary, for speaker power amplifier as well as noise source.

MPU: ESP32 or related with built in Bluetooth/WiFi. This will be used to communicate with another ESP32 which will be built into the wearable band. The pulse rate data received from the wearable band will be used to control the output level of the noise source.

Speaker: Speaker with a wideband output frequency range (100Hz - 20kHz) will be used as white noise has an even power level across the full frequency spectrum. We may implement a power amplifier circuit with a simple transistor topology.

Noise Source: If it is manageable through ESP32, this will be programmed in MPU. Otherwise, transistor/opamp based white noise source will be implemented.

-Subsystem 2 (Wearable band):
MPU: another ESP32 microcontroller to send the pulse data to the main speaker/source unit.

Heart rate sensor: MAX30100 or MAX30102 or SEN11574

Battery: Lithium ion 3.3/5VDC

#Criterion For Success

One high-level goal of our project is to have wireless communication between a heart rate sensor wristband and a white noise machine. This wristband should be able to detect the heart rate of the user and differentiate between the four sleep stages of the user and differentiate between slight increases in heart rate to detect unrest. With software implementation, the WNG should decrease in volume when transitioning between sleep stages and after detecting an increase in heart rate.

Habit-Forming Toothbrush Stand

John Kim, Quinn Palanca, Rahul Vasanth

Habit-Forming Toothbrush Stand

Featured Project

I spoke with a TA that approved this idea during office hours today, and they said I should submit it as a project proposal.

# Habit-Forming Toothbrush Stand

Team Members:

- Rahul Vasanth (rvasant2)

- Quinn Andrew Palanca (qpalanc2)

- John Jung-Yoon Kim (johnjk5)

# Problem

There are few habits as impactful as good dental hygiene. Brushing teeth in the morning and night can significantly improve health outcomes. Many struggle with forming and maintaining this habit. Parents might have a difficult time getting children to brush in the morning and before sleep while homeless shelter staff, rehab facility staff, and really, anyone looking to develop and track this habit may want a non-intrusive, privacy-preserving method to develop and maintain the practice of brushing their teeth in the morning. Keeping track of this information and but not storing it permanently through a mobile application is something that does not exist on the market. A small nudge is needed to keep kids, teenagers, and adults of all ages aware and mindful about their brushing habits. Additionally, many tend to zone out while brushing their teeth because they are half asleep and have no idea how long they are brushing.

# Solution

Our solution is catered toward electric toothbrushes. Unlike specific toothbrush brands that come with mobile applications, our solution applies to all electric toothbrushes, preserves privacy, and reduces screen time. We will implement a habit-forming toothbrush stand with a microcontroller, sensors, and a simple LED display that houses the electric toothbrush. A band of sensors will be wrapped around the base of the toothbrush. Lifting the toothbrush from the stand, turning it on, and starting to brush displays a timer that counts seconds up to ten minutes. This solves the problem of brushing too quickly or losing track of time and brushing for too long. Additionally, the display will provide a scorecard for brushing, with 14 values coming from (morning, night) x (6daysago, 5daysago, . . . , today) for a "record" of one week and 14 possible instances of brushing. This will augment the user's awareness of any new trends, and potentially help parents, their children, and other use cases outlined above. We specifically store just one week of data as the goal is habit formation and not permanent storage of potentially sensitive health information in the cloud.

# Solution Components

## Subsystem 1 - Sensor Band

The sensor band will contain a Bluetooth/Wireless Accelerometer and Gyroscope, or Accelerometer, IR sensor (to determine height lifted above sink), Bluetooth/Wireless connection to the microcontroller. This will allow us to determine if the electric toothbrush has been turned on. We will experiment with the overall angle, but knowing whether the toothbrush is parallel to the ground, or is lifted at a certain height above the sink will provide additional validation. These outputs need to be communicated wirelessly to the habit-forming toothbrush stand.

Possibilities: and individual sensors which we are exploring on Digikey and PCB Piezotronics as well.

## Subsystem 2 - Toothbrush Base/Stand and Display

The toothbrush stand will have a pressure sensor to determine when the toothbrush is lifted from the stand (alternatively, we may also add on an IR sensor), a microcontroller with Bluetooth capability, and a control unit to process sensor outputs as well as an LED display which will be set based on the current state. Additionally, the stand will need an internal clock to distinguish between morning and evening and mark states accordingly. The majority of sensors are powered by 3.3V - 5V. If we use a battery, we may include an additional button to power on the display (or just have it turn on when the pressure sensor / IR sensor output confirms the toothbrush has been lifted, or have the device plug into an outlet.

# Criterion For Success

1. When the user lifts the toothbrush from the stan and it begins to vibrate (signaling the toothbrush is on), the brushing timer begins and is displayed.

2. After at least two minutes have passed and the toothbrush is set back on the stand, the display correctly marks the current day and period (morning or evening).

3. Track record over current and previous days and the overall weekly record is accurately maintained. At the start of a new day, the record is shifted appropriately.

Project Videos