# Title Team Members TA Documents Sponsor
8 Particle Image Velocimetry
Brant Qian
Hanfei Yao
Yihui Chen
Yueming Yuan
Timothy Lee
# Team Members:

- Yihui Chen (yuhuic3)

- Hanfei Yao (hanfeiy3)

- Yueming Yuan (yy28)

- Siyuan Qian (siyuanq4)

# Problem

Understanding how fluids move is crucial for many scientific and engineering applications. However, traditional methods to visualize fluid flow are complicated and not easy for everyone to grasp. We need a simple and accessible solution for visualizing fluid dynamics. We need to design a device that can demonstrate particle image velocimetry. The device can demonstrate in a simple way that children can easily understand and interact with. Low cost, easy maintenance, durable.

# Solution Overview

The proposed Fluid Velocity Measurement System is a comprehensive solution comprising distinct subsystems for accurate and real-time measurements. Within the system, the Fluid Channel Subsystem ensures continuous fluid circulation through a sophisticated piping system driven by manually operated pumps. The Laser and Optical Subsystem incorporates an adjustable laser source and optical components, such as lenses and mirrors, to illuminate and capture clear images of particles within the fluid. The Particle Injection Subsystem generates and evenly disperses trackable particles for enhanced visibility. The Image Acquisition Subsystem, equipped with a digital camera, captures and aligns particle images, forwarding them to an Image Processing System for precise velocity calculations. The Remote Access and Control Subsystem allows an instructor to control the device remotely with a simple application. The hands-free Voice Control Subsystem allows children to interact with the device safely and conveniently. The User Interface and Data Visualization Subsystem offers a user-friendly platform with a display for real-time fluid images and velocity field visualizations, enabling efficient monitoring and analysis of fluid dynamics. This holistic solution caters to applications demanding accurate and timely fluid velocity information without duplicating details from the specified components. Our PIV device also can provide some fun parts to help them understand how it works and rise their interests in fluid dynamics.

# Solution Components
## Flowing System:

Transparent container that allows fluid flow through. There are small manually operated pumps that ensure that the fluid circulates through the channel. We can measure and control flow rate of the fluid.

## Particle Injection System:

A particle generator produces small particles that can be followed in a fluid, such as brightly colored markers. The particle injector introduces particles into the fluid channel, ensuring that they are evenly distributed and can be illuminated by the laser.

## Illumination System:

A laser source that provides a laser beam for illuminating particles in the fluid and ensures that the laser source is position adjustable. And contains an optical system including lenses, mirrors, and filters for creating a clear spot and image.

## Image Acquisition System:

A camera is used to capture images of the particles in the fluid, sending the captured pictures to an image processing system, which, is used to calculate the particle velocity. At the same time the camera makes sure to align the particles in the fluid channel. The camera should have high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, short and accurate inter-frame time, and sometimes high frame rates.

## Remote Access and Control System:

A network module implemented with Raspberry Pi to enable remote access and control of the PIV. Web-based interface or a simple application that can connect to the Raspberry Pi, allowing users, e.g., instructors, to monitor and control the system remotely.

## Voice Control System

A voice-controlled interface in the Raspberry Pi to enable it to understand and respond to simple verbal instructions. This subcomponent will enhance the user interaction with the PIV system, allowing for hands-free operation and accessibility.

## Interactive User Interface:

A graphical user interface (GUI) on the Raspberry Pi, allowing users to control various aspects of the PIV system, view real-time data, and adjust settings as needed. The GUI may include features like starting/terminating experiments, adjusting flow rate, controlling laser and camera settings, and visualizing real-time fluid flow patterns.

## Data Visualization System

A comprehensive data visualization interface on the Raspberry Pi, specifically tailored to the PIV. This interface will enable users to visualize the velocity of particles within the fluid in real time, providing an intuitive and interactive way to understand complex fluid dynamics.

# Criterion for Success

## User-Friendly and Affordable:

Easily understandable, especially for children.
Cost-effective with readily available materials.

## Reliable and Low Maintenance:

Durable, requiring minimal maintenance.
Accurate fluid velocity measurements.

## Real-time Visualization:

User Interface provides real-time fluid images and velocity field visualizations.

## Adjustability and Safety:

Laser and optical components and the remote and voice control interfaces are adjustable and incorporate safety features.

## Educational and Compatible:

Effective educational tool for fluid dynamics understanding.
Compatible with common operating systems and allows data export.

## Interactive and Hands-On Experience:

Able to have hands-on interaction for a more engaging experience.
Provides a fun, interactive, and convenient way to learn about fluid dynamics.

# Distribution of work
ME Student Yihui Chen
Do Camera calibration and Laser camera synchronization.
Do Basic image processing.

ME Student Hanfei Yao
Do Particle material selection and Container and channel design
Carry out unit tests to ensure device’s accuracy and efficiency.

ECE Student Siyuan Qian
Implement remote access control.
Implement the voice-controlled interface.
Do data visualization.

ECE Student Yueming Yuan
Implement the interactive user interface.
Do data visualization.

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We plan to create a dynamic robot with one to two legs stabilized in one or two dimensions in order to demonstrate jumping and forward/backward walking. This project will demonstrate the feasibility of inexpensive walking robots and provide the starting point for a novel quadrupedal robot. We will write a hybrid position-force task space controller for each leg. We will use a modified version of the ODrive open source motor controller to control the torque of the joints. The joints will be driven with high torque off-the-shelf brushless DC motors. We will use high precision magnetic encoders such as the AS5048A to read the angles of each joint. The inverse dynamics calculations and system controller will run on a TI F28335 processor.

We feel that this project appropriately brings together knowledge from our previous coursework as well as our extracurricular, research, and professional experiences. It allows each one of us to apply our strengths to an exciting and novel project. We plan to use the legs, software, and simulation that we develop in this class to create a fully functional quadruped in the future and release our work so that others can build off of our project. This project will be very time intensive but we are very passionate about this project and confident that we are up for the challenge.

While dynamically stable quadrupeds exist— Boston Dynamics’ Spot mini, Unitree’s Laikago, Ghost Robotics’ Vision, etc— all of these robots use custom motors and/or proprietary control algorithms which are not conducive to the increase of legged robotics development. With a well documented affordable quadruped platform we believe more engineers will be motivated and able to contribute to development of legged robotics.

More specifics detailed here: