The course staff must critically examine several thousand pages of pset and exam submissions this semester! We desperately need your help to make sure your work is graded and returned quickly. If you have any questions or concerns about these policies, please don't hesitate to ask in lecture, during office hours, on Piazza, or by email.

I apologize in advance for the length of this document. Most of this stuff is obvious to almost everybody, but after teaching this class for many years, I've seen a lot of strange things.


  • All pset solutions must be submitted electronically via Gradescope. Submit one PDF file for each numbered pset problem. Gradescope will not accept other file formats such as plain text, HTML, LaTeX source, or Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx).
  • You can register with Gradescope using any name and email address you like. If you are not logging into Gradescope with your real name or university email address, you must include your real name or your university email address within your pset solutions.
  • Each student must submit individual pset0 solutions.
  • Starting with pset1, pset solutions may be submitted by groups of at most three students. We strongly encourage (but will not require) every student to work in a group with at least one other student. Students are are responsible for forming their own pset groups.
    • For group solutions, exactly one member of each group submits the solutions.
    • Whoever submits any group solution must also submit the names of the other group members via Gradescope. Gradescope will then automatically apply the grade for that submission to all group members. If this information is not entered correctly, the other group members' grades will be delayed or possibly lost entirely.
    • If you discover that your name was omitted from a group pset submission, please submit a regrade request.
  • As error-correction, each submitted pset solution should include the following information in large friendly letters at the top of the first page.
    • The pset number
    • The problem number
    • Your netid
    • Your Gradescope name and email address
    For group solutions, include the netids, and the Gradescope names and email addresses of every group member.
  • We will not accept late psets for any reason. To offset this rather draconian policy, we will drop several of your lowest pset problem scores; see the grading policies for more details.
  • In extreme circumstances, we may forgive quizzes, psets, or even exams. Extreme circumstances include documented illness or injury, but do not include registering late, travel for job interviews or conferences, forgetting the pset deadline, or just not finishing on time. We will compute your final course grade as if your forgiven psets and exams simply do not exist; your other work will have more weight. Please ask one of the instructors for details.


Please make it easy for the graders to figure out what you mean in the short time they have to grade your solution. A portion of every pset grade is specifically devoted to clarity and style. If your solutions are difficult to read or understand, you will lose points.

Be Honest

  • Write everything in your own words, and properly cite every outside source you use. We strongly encourge you to use any outside source at your disposal, provided you use your sources properly and give them proper credit. If you get an idea from an outside source, citing that source will not lower your grade. Failing to properly cite an outside source - thereby taking credit for ideas that are not your own - is plagiarism.

    The only sources that you are not required to cite are the official course materials (lectures, lecture notes, pset and exam solutions from this semester) and sources for prerequisite material (which we assume you already know by heart).

  • List everyone you worked with on each pset problem. Again, we strongly encourage you to work together, but you must give everyone proper credit. If you work in a group of 20 students, then all 20 names should appear on your pset solution. If someone was particularly helpful, describe their contribution. Be generous; if you're not sure whether someone should be included in your list of collaborators, include them. For discussions in class, in section, or in office hours, where collecting names is impractical, it's okay to write something like "discussions in class."
  • Please see our academic integrity policy for more details.

Be Clear

  • Write legibly. If we can't decipher your solution, we can't give you credit. If you have sloppy handwriting, use LaTeX. Please don't submit your first draft. Writing legibly also helps you think more clearly.
  • Write sensibly. You will lose points for poor spelling, grammar, punctuation, arithmetic, algebra, logic, and so on. This rule is especially important for students whose first language is not English. Writing sensibly also helps you think sensibly.
  • Write carefully. We can only grade what you actually write, not what you mean. We will not attempt to read your mind. If your answer is ambiguous, we will deliberately choose the interpretation that makes it wrong. Writing carefully also helps you think carefully.
  • Avoid the Three Deadly Sins. Yes, we are completely serious about these. We reserve the right to add more Deadly Sins later in the course.
    1. Write solutions, not examples. Don't describe algorithms by showing the first two or three iterations and then writing "and so on". Similarly, don't try to prove something by demonstrating it for a few small examples and then writing "do the same thing for all n." Any solution that includes phrases like "and so on," "etc.," "do this for all n," or "repeat this process" automatically gets a score of zero. Those phrases indicate precisely where you should have used iteration, recursion, or induction but didn't.
    2. Declare all your variables. In English. Whenever you use a new variable or non-standard symbol for the first time, you must specify both its type and its meaning. Similarly, when you describe any algorithm, you must first describe in English precisely what the algorithm is supposed to do. Any solution that contains undeclared variables automatically gets a score of zero, unless it is otherwise perfect.
    3. Never use weak induction. Always, always, always use a strong induction hypothesis, even in proofs that only apply the induction hypothesis at n-1. Why would you even want to tie n-2 hands behind your back? Any proof that uses a weak induction hypothesis automatically gets a score of zero, unless it is otherwise perfect. Basically, weak induction should die in a fire.
  • State your assumptions. If a problem statement is ambiguous, explicitly state any additional assumptions that your solution requires. (Please also ask for clarification in class, in office hours, or on Piazza!) For example, if the performance of your algorithm depends on how the input is represented, tell us exactly what representation you require.
  • Don't submit code. Describe your algorithms using clean, human-readable pseudocode. Your description should allow a bright student in cs225 to easily implement your algorithm in their favorite language.
  • Don't submit your first draft. Revise, revise, revise. After you figure out the solution, then think about the right way to present it, and only then start writing what you plan to submit. Yes, even on exams; do your initial scratch work on the back of the page.

Be Concise

  • Keep it short. Every pset problem can be answered completely in at most two typeset pages or five handwritten pages; most problems require considerably less. Yes, I am aware of the crushing irony.
  • Omit irrelevant details. Don't write "red-black tree" when you mean "balanced binary tree" or "dictionary". Don't submit code; We want to see your ideas, not syntactic sugar.
  • Don't regurgitate. Don't explain binary search; just write "binary search". Don't write the pseudocode for Dijkstra's algorithm; just write "Disjktra's algorithm". If the solution appears on page 6 of Jeff's notes, just write "See page 6 of Jeff's notes." If your answer is similar to something we've seen in class, just say so and (carefully!) describe your changes. You will lose points for vomiting.


  • Answer the right question. No matter how clear and polished your solution is, it's worthless if it doesn't answer the question we asked. Make sure you understand the question before you start thinking about how to answer it. If something is unclear, ask for clarification! This is especially important on exams.
  • Justify your answers. Unless the problem specifically says otherwise, every pset problem requires a proof. Without a proof, even a perfectly correct solution is worth nothing. In particular, the sentence "It's obvious!" is not a proof - 'obvious' is often a synonym for 'false'! However, proofs are only required on exams if we specifically ask for them.
  • By default, if a pset or exam problem asks you to describe an algorithm, you need to do several things to get full credit:
    • If necessary, formally restate the problem in terms of combinatorial objects such as sets, sequences, lists, graphs, or trees. In other words, tell us what the problem is really asking for. This is often the hardest part of designing an algorithm.
    • Give a concise pseudocode description of your algorithm. Don't regurgitate, and don't turn in code!
    • Describe a correct algorithm.
    • Justify the correctness of your algorithm. You usually won't have to do this on exams.
    • Analyze your algorithm's running time. This may be as simple as saying "There are two nested loops from 1 to n, so the running time is O(n2)." Or it may require setting up and solving a summation and/or a recurrence, in which case you'll also have to prove your answer is correct.
    • Describe the fastest correct algorithm you can, even if the problem does not include the words "fast" or "efficient". Faster algorithms are worth more points; brute force is usually not worth much. We will not always tell you what time bound to shoot for; that's part of what you're trying to learn. However, if your algorithm is incorrect, you won't get any points, no matter how fast it is!
    Some problems may deviate from these default requirements. For example, we may ask you for an algorithm that uses a particular approach, even though another approach may be more efficient. (Answer the right question!)