**NPRE 441: Principles of
Radiation Protection**

**Spring, 2024**

__Course Description __

This course
provides a comprehensive coverage of the principles and methodologies underlying
radiation protection and radiation health physics. The major topics being
discussed in this course include sources of ionizing radiation, the interaction
of ionizing radiation with matter, essential tools and techniques for dosimetry
measurements, counting statistics, principles of radiation dosimetry,
biological effects of ionizing radiation, methods for deriving the radiation
dose from internal and external radiation sources, and standard approaches for
shielding design and radiation protection.

__Textbook __

Primary: J. Turner, "Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation
Protection", Third Edition, Wiley-VHC, Inc. (2007).

__Reference Books__

[1]
H. Cember, "Introduction to Health
Physics", 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill (2010).

[2]
J. K. Shultis and R. E. Faw,
"Radiation Shielding," American Nuclear Society (2000).

[3] R. E. Faw and J. K. Shultis,
"Radiological Assessment: Sources and Doses, American Nuclear Society
(1999).

[4] E. L. Alpen, "Radiation Biophysics," Academic Press (1998).

[5] G. F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurements, Third Edition, John
Wiley & Sons, 1999.

__Course Website__

**Course website**: http://courses.engr.illinois.edu/npre441/

**GCOE course explorer
website**: https://courses.illinois.edu/schedule/2024/spring/NPRE/441

__Lecture Hours and Lecture Room Information__

**Lecture hours**: Monday and Wednesday at Noon to 1:50 pm.

**Lecture room**: 3018 Campus Instructional Facility.

__Grading__

6 homework: 20%
(towards the final score)

4-6 quizzes: 30%

Midterm exam: 20%

Final exam: 20%

Term project: 10%

__Teaching Assistants and Office Hours__

**Teaching**** Assistant**: Runxia Wen, email: runxiaw2@illinois.edu

**Office Hours**: 1-3 pm on
Tuesday and 10-noon on Friday, both at 220 Talbot.

__Course Contents__

**Chapter 1: The Nucleus and Nuclear Radiation **

·
Nuclear
structure and nuclear binding energy

· Alpha decay, beta decay, and secondary ionizing radiations

·
Transformation
kinetics and serial decay

· Naturally occurring radioactivity

Summary slides for Chapter 1

**Chapter 2: Interaction of Radiation with
Matter**

·
Interaction
of beta particles with matter

· Interaction heavy charged particles and phenomena associated with charged particle tracks

· Interaction of X-rays and gamma-rays I – Interaction mechanisms

·
Interaction
of X-rays and gamma-rays II – attenuation coefficients, calculation of
energy absorption and energy transfer

Summary slides of Chapter 2

**Chapter 3: Methods for Radiation Detection **

**(Note: this chapter will not be
covered in NPRE441, but the conceptual understanding of basic radiation
detection and measurement techniques would be needed for Chapters 4 and 5)**

·
Gas-filled
detectors, ionization process, charge migration, ionization counters, and
proportional counters.

·
Scintillation
detectors

·
Semiconductor
detectors

·
Neutron
detection techniques

**Chapter 4: Counting Statistics **

·
Statistical
models for radioactive decay processes, Bernoulli processes, binomial, Poisson,
and Gaussian distributions

·
Counting
statistics, error, and error propagation

·
False-positive and false-negative errors and
delectability limits

·
A brief introduction to Monte Carlo techniques

Summary slides of Chapter 4

**Chapter 5: Radiation Dosimetry **

·
Units, dose, exposure, and dose-exposure relationship

·
Measurement of exposure and absorbed dose, the
Bragg-Gray principle

· Dose calculations associated with X-ray, gamma-ray, charged particles, and neutrons

·
Internally
deposited radioisotopes and the MIRD method

Summary
slides of Chapter 5

**Chapter 6: Biological Effects of Radiation **

**(Note
(01/12/24) that the contents covered in this chapter will be subject to further
adjustment)**

·
The
time frame for radiation effects

·
Physical,
pre-chemical, and chemical changes in irradiated water

· Basic concepts of cell biology and
irradiation of cells

· Types of radiation damage

· Therapeutic ratio and the 5 Rs of radiobiology

·
Factors
affecting dose responses

· The acute radiation syndrome and delayed somatic effects

**Chapter 7: External Radiation Protection **

·
Basic
principles for external radiation protection and gamma-ray shielding
considerations

·
Shielding
in X-ray installations

·
Protection against external beta radiation

·
Neutron shielding

Summary
slides of Chapter 7

**Chapter 8: Radiation Protection Criteria and
Exposure Limits**

·
The
objective of radiation protection

· ICRP dosimetry models (for the respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract)

__Homeworks____ __

Homework 1. It is due at 5 pm
on Monday, February 12, 2024.

Homework 2. It is due at 5 pm
on Monday, March 4, 2024.

__Term Project__

TBA.

__Quizzes__

TBA.

__Exams __

**Midterm Exam: **

**Date**: Wednesday, March 6^{th}, at
12-2 pm.

**Location**: 3018 CIF.

**Format**: TBA.

**Content covered in the exam**: TBA.

**Final Exam: **TBA.