Course Overview: This course focuses on the derivation of models for the terminal currents of the semiconductor devices used in integrated circuits: diode, bipolar junction transistor and MOSFET. Our objective will be to represent the device's steadystate response; however, we will also discuss how to extend the models to the transient case. Throughout the semester, we will study semiconductor physics, focusing on topics such as drift and diffusion, generation and recombination, and avalanche multiplication. In the latter part of the semester, we will explore the motivations behind recent modifications to the basic transistor structures, such as the adoption of highk gate dielectrics for MOSFETs.
Course Expectations and Outcome: I expect students to do the reading before and after class and monitor all email and online communication related to this class. Ultimately, I want the student to enjoy this course and find it relevant in their career goals. Technical outcomes of this course are:
Section  Time  Room  Instructor  Office Hours  Course Logistics  Piazza 
All 
MWF 10:0010:50 AM 
Online Click here for zoom login information [Zoom info updated starting Oct. 09] 
Shaloo Rakheja rakheja@illinois.edu 
Thurs 1:002:00 PM (zoom info here) or by email appointment also on zoom 
Check here 
Self enroll in Piazza here 
I occasionally need to shift my office hours to accommodate prelim exams, research obligations, firm meetings, etc., so always check the class webpage before coming to office hour on any given day. Any changes to my office hours will be listed under "Announcements." on Piazza. Please drop me an email if you want to meet me outside of office hours.
Teaching Assistants: Ankit Shukla (Email: ankits4@illinois.edu) (Use Piazza for quicker response)
Course Outline: Specified Here
Course Material: Lecture notes and slides are based on the material from textbook: Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits, 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons. Authors: Richard S. Muller and Theodore I. Kamins. However, I will be posting extra reading materials, journal articles, discussion pages on asneeded basis. It is the student's responsibility to go through all the posted materials and ask questions if in doubt. There will be some material that is more advanced and posted only for those interested. You will not be quizzed on it, but feel free to come to office hours to discuss advanced material and research ideas based on it. Lectures will be delivered using a mix of hand written notes and powerpoint slides.
Semiconductor Material Properties: For all HWs and tests, we will use semiconductor material properties given in tables here.
Lecture Date  Title  Lecture Notes (L)/Videos (V)  Reading Materials/Notes 
Aug 24, 2020  Recap of semiconductor basicsPart I 
Essential read 

Aug 26, 2020  Recap of semiconductor basicsPart II  L2 V2 
Essential read 
Aug 28, 2020 
FermiDirac statistics; Free carrier density 
Essential read 

Aug 31, 2020 
Free carrier density continued; Carrier freezeout 

Sep 02, 2020 
Heavy doping; Inhomogeneous doping; Quasi Fermi level 
V5 (starts at 3:30 minutes) 
Search for bandgap narrowing models in silicon. Example: 
Sep 04, 2020  Generationrecombination introduction 


Sep 09, 2020  Generationrecombination in equilibrium 
Nonessential but interesting advanced reading from book "Semiconductor Statistics" by J.S. Blakemore [ISBN 0486653625, QC611.B52] 

Sep 11, 2020  Generationrecombination in outofequilibrium (OOE) 
Essential read Appendix (Must follow the calculation for HW3) Derivation of U_trap for Et != Ei 

Sep. 14, 2020 
Lowlevel injection; Extraction/generation 
Nonessential but highly recommended read. Good discussion on GR processes can be found in Chapter 5 of "Advanced Semiconductor Fundamentals" by Robert F. Pierret. Full text available on Hathi Trust Digital Library https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000813863? You must login using your Illinois credentials. 

Sep. 16, 2020  Carrier dynamics in uniform situation 
Essential Please revise solving 1st order ODEs. 

Sep. 18, 2020 
Surface recombination due to traps 
Nonessential Following paper summarizes all our GR understanding from an experimentalist's perspective: Schroder, Dieter K. "Carrier lifetimes in silicon." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 44.1 (1197): 160170. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/554806 

Sep. 21 2020 
Introduction to carrier transport 
Nonessential read: Concept of phonons and velocity saturation 

Sep. 23 2020 
Carrier drift Models of mobility and saturation velocity 
Nonessential Following paper catalogues important models to be used in drift diffusion modeling of silicon: Jacoboni, C., Canali, C., Ottaviani, G., & Quaranta, A. A. (1977). A review of some charge transport properties of silicon. SolidState Electronics, 20(2), 7789. https://doi.org/10.1016/00381101(77)900545 

Sep. 25 2020 
Carrier diffusion Current in terms of quasi Fermi level gradient Nonuniform doping 
Essential read 

Sep. 28 2020 
Carrier distribution in equilibrium Boltzmann relations 
Essential read M&K Chapter 4, pages 174181 

Sep. 30 2020 
Quasi neutrality condition Continuity equation Shockley equations 
Here are inclass notes. 
Nonessential but useful notes on drift diffusion transport model derived from random walk. Check here. 
Oct. 02 2020 
Application of Shockley equations to solving majority carrier transport  
Oct. 05 2020  Application of Shockley equations to solving minority carrier transport and space charge regions 
Essential read Summary of Shockley equations and various approximations Check here. 

Oct. 07 2020 
Surface continuity eq. Hot carriers 

Oct, 09 2020 
PN junction in equilibrium Qualitative view of band bending 
Essential read Example of difference in transport across QNR and SCR. 

Oct. 12 2020 
Qualitative view of current conduction Preliminary derivation of IV characteristics 
Essential read Qualitative IV in a pn junction


Oct. 14 2020 
Derivation of IV characteristics and band bending in OOE Introduction to dynamic behavior 
V22  #No new lecture notes since we wrapped up pending business from L21. 
Oct. 16 2020 
Junction charge and capacitance Diffusion charge and capacitance Equivalent largesignal circuit model 
Essential read 

Oct. 19 2020 
Smallsignal diode model Switching characteristics (turnon and turnoff transient timing) 
Essential read from textbook M&K: Section 5.4, pages 256261 Section 5.5, pages 262264 

Oct. 21 2020 
Secondary effects in a pn junction diode including (i) short diode and (ii) generationrecombination in SCR. 
Essential read from textbook M&K: Sec. 5.3, pages 238250 

Oct. 23 2020 
Secondary effects in a pn junction diode including (i) series resistance, (i) junction breakdown (quantitative analysis) and (ii) nonuniform doping 
Essential read from textbook M&K: Sec. 4.4, pages 203212 Sec. 4.2, pages 191194 Nonessential read on avalanche breakdown 

Oct. 26 2020 
Continued discussion of secondary effects in pn junction diode 
Pending business from Lec. 26  
Oct. 28 2020 
Metal semiconductor junction electrostatics 
Essential read from textbook M&K: Sec. 3.1 and 3.2, pages 139151 

Oct. 30 2020 
Metal semiconductor junctioncurrent conduction via driftdiffusion 
Essential read from textbook M&K: Sec. 3.3, pages 152155 (IV characteristics) 

Nov. 02 2020 
Current conduction via thermionic emission Surface effects

Essential read from textbook M&K: Sec. 3.3, pages 155158 (IV characteristics) Sec. 3.5, pages 162166 (surface effects) 

Nov 04 2020 
Nonrectifying contacts Tunneling Schottky barrier lowering 
Pending business from L30 covered Essential read from textbook M&K Sec. 3.4, pages 158162 (Nonrectifying contacts) 

Nov. 06 2020 
Metaloxide semiconductors electrostatics  Part I (i) Band bending (V = 0, V<0, V>0). (ii) Electrical field versus Qs versus surface potential in 3D MOS capacitor 
Essential read from textbook M&K Sec. 8.1, pages 381386 Sec. 8.2, pages 387390 

Nov. 09 2020 
Metaloxide semiconductors electrostatics  Part II (i) Qualitative discussion of charges, electrostatic potential and electric field in MOS (ii) Threshold voltage definition 
Essential read from textbook M&K Sec. 8.3, pages 390396


Nov. 11 2020 
Metaloxide semiconductors electrostatics  Part III (i) Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MOS CV at low frequency 
Essential read from textbook M&K Sec. 8.4, pages 396402 

Nov 13 2020 
Metaloxide semiconductors electrostatics  Part IV (i) Flatband voltage discussion and its impact on V_T of Ntype and Ptype transistors 
Nonessential read: Aleksandrov, O. V. "A model of formation of fixed charge in thermal silicon dioxide." Semiconductors 45.4 (2011): 467473. 

Nov. 16 2020 
Metaloxide semiconductors electrostatics  Part V (i) Effect of interface traps (ii) Mobile charges in insulator 
Essential read from textbook M&K Sec. 8.5, pages 402409 

Nov. 18 2020 
Metaloxide semiconductors electrostatics  Part VI (i) Polysilicon depletion (ii) Quantum mechanical effects 

Nov. 20 2020 
MOSFET current conduction (i) Linear regime and saturation regime 
Essential read 

Nov. 23 2020^{#} 
MOSFET current conduction (i) Saturation regime  pinch off and velocity saturation (ii) Output conductance and transconductance 
Essential read 

Nov. 25 2020^{#} 
Subthreshold current conduction in MOSFET 
L40 V40 

Nov. 30 2020 
MOSFET current conduction wrapup Channel length modulation, draininduced barrier lowering, body effect, leakage effects 
L41 V41 
Essential read 
^{#}Extra class
Homework: Will be assigned on Piazza under Resources and Compass2g.
HW  Link to HW  Due Date  Solution 
1  Homework 1  Sep. 06  HW Sol1 
2  Homework 2  Sep. 13  HWSol2 
3  Homework 3  Sep. 20  HWSol3 
4  Homework 4  Sep. 27  HWSol4 
5  Homework 5  Oct. 04  HWSol5 
6  Homework 6  Oct. 16  HWSol6 
7  Homework 7  Oct. 25  HWSol7 
8  Homework 8  Nov. 01  HWSol8 
9  Homework 9  Nov. 08  HWSol9 
10  Homework 10  Nov. 22  HWSol10 
11  Homework 11  Nov. 29  HWSol11 
12  Homework 12  Dec. 06  HWSol12 
Exams: Two midsemester exams and one final exam. Exam dates: October 06, 2020 (midsem exam 1, covers everything up to Oct. 02), November 10 (midsem exam 2).
Note the date of the exams has been changed !!
Midterm exam 2 on Nov. 10 will occur in two time slots: (i) Time slot 1 is from 7:30 AM to 10:30 AM and (ii) Time slot 2 is from 4:00 PM to 7:00 PM.
If you are unable to appear during either of the time slots, please email instructor by EOD Nov. 06 2020.
Final exam details will be released later.
Grading Policy:
Homework  25% of total 
Midsemester Exams 
45% of total (22.5% each midterm exam) 
Final Exam (comprehensive)  30% of total 
I encourage active participation in class/online on Piazza. Please ask questions and doubts as often as necessary.